RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION

Introduction


Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater for human use.

The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.

The Arab region hosts one of the most ecologically fragile and water scarce environments, pressures on carrying capacity are of particular importance in sustaining poverty reduction efforts and recovering from conflict. The population of the region has nearly tripled since 1970, climbing from 128 million to 359 million, with a population of 598 million expected by 2050, increasing by two-thirds over 2010 levels. As a result, many countries in the region have seen expanding ecological footprints and decreased carrying capacities. The continued rise of conflicts has exacerbated this challenge, increasing the fragility of natural assets and generating a need for ecological restoration.

A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs. Halving the per capita of global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security, and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy.

In 2014, natural gas production accounted for 5.7 trillion cubic feet. Consumption of hydrocarbon products is continuously increasing with population growth and economic activity. Natural gas consumption almost doubled over the last years, increasing from 6.3 trillion cubic feet in 2000 to 13.2 trillion cubic feet in 2014.

Since 2000, Lebanon has implemented an environmental legislation requiring industries to minimize their pollution. However, further support is needed in environmental governance at municipal level, such as a recycling and waste management.

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.E.) IN RENEWABLE ENERGY ENGINEERING (RNEE)


Renewable Energy Engineering Program

Renewable Energy Engineering (RNEE) is a 4-year program that consists of 150 credits and aims at educating engineers to acquire the necessary competencies to design, build and operate the green energy infrastructure.


In addition to basic science and math, the program begins by building solid grounding in fundamentals comprising elements from material, mechanical, thermal, and electrical engineering.


This is followed by 4 semesters of advanced engineering courses that cover Solar and Wind Energy, Photovoltaic Cells, Hydropower Generation, and Geothermal Energy.

The curriculum provides students with strong theory and practical hands-on enabling them to devise effective solutions for the generation, distribution, and utilization of green energy for grid-connected and off-grid applications.


The major culminates in a two-semester capstone where students, working in small groups, demonstrate their mastery of the required engineering competencies and the design process.


Program Aim / Objective

To prepare experts in the various aspects of energy and alternative energy sciences and technologies, in particular energy conservation strategies and engineering practices for clean energy production.


Learning Outcomes

Graduates from the Renewable Energy Engineering (RNEE) program are expected to:

  • Design, build and operate green energy infrastructures.

  • Pursue graduate studies in energy or other related multidisciplinary areas.

  • Acquire professional leadership in their fields of expertise and commitment to environment, community, and global society.


Career Opportunities

Renewable Energy Engineers acquire a broad spectrum of skills needed for every profession in the energy industry that is booming worldwide.


A graduate from RNEE program will be qualified to work in Clean Power Generation and Distribution, Solar Energy Systems, Wind Energy Systems, Hydropower Plants and Geothermal Energy Systems, Sustainability, Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Energy System Modelling, and Energy Audit.


Other career options include prominent chances to work in research and development spending huge budgets on green energy studies.


Offered Courses

  • Fundamentals of Renewable Energy

  • Sustainable and Passive Building Design

  • Solar Thermal Energy Systems

  • Green Buildings and LEED

  • Renewable Energy Lab

  • Geothermal Energy & Heat Pump Applications

  • Wind Energy

  • Energy Management

  • Hydraulic Machinery and Stations

  • Instrumentation and Measurement

  • Control Systems

  • Modern Drives

  • Power System Operation

  • Grid Integration

  • Photovoltaic Systems


Program Requirements

The RNEE curriculum consists of the following components:

Upon an invitation from the President of Beirut Arab University Prof. Amr Galal El – Adawi, the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the SPE BAU Student Chapter in collaboration with the Faculty of Engineering at Beirut Arab University organized a lecture entitled “The Current Petroleum Activities and Sustainability in the Arab world”. The seminar was attended by President of the Society of Petroleum Engineers Dr. Sami Al Nuaim, HE Saad El Hariri represented by Engineer Refaat Saad, Ambassador of the United Arab Emirates in Lebanon Dr. Hamad Saeed Al Shamusi, Ambassador of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Lebanon Mr. Walid Bin Abdullah Bukhari and a crowd of experts and interested audience.


After the Lebanese Anthem and BAU Anthem, Head of SPE-BAU Student Chapter Youssef Abdul Hadi opened the seminar with a speech in which he highlighted the importance of the students' presence in SPE in Lebanon, for they must join this industry as professionals. Chairman of BAU Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Departments and the Faculty Advisor for BAU Chapter Dr. Rami Harkouss spoke about "the role of oil and its contribution to social development, as well as the need for common interests among the Arab countries and their cooperation at all levels such as the establishment of unified Arab funds and the establishment of a Lebanese academic community in order to activate joint academic research.”


Dean of Faculty of Engineering Professor Adel Al Kordi considered that “the production of oil is one of the greatest challenges facing the world at present and its importance is highlighted as the foundation of the industrial renaissance and an important strategic commodity in international trade. Undoubtedly, oil has a major influence on all sectors. Therefore, our Arab world has become the focus of attention of the countries with an oil-based economy, resulting in some of the problems and unrest that have become a part of our daily life.”


Chairman of the Board of Directors, Lebanese Petroleum Administration and Head of Strategic Planning Department Mr. Walid Nasr stressed “the importance of establishing an integrated legislative system and strengthening the laws of transparency to restore confidence between the government and the Lebanese, which can be achieved through monitoring and accountability.” He also tackled several issues, including sustainability, environment preservation and value creation through the promotion of investment.


Nasr also emphasized that “the second licensing cycle will begin upon the approval of the Council of Ministers” and stressed “the need to complete the studies on how to take advantage of gas in the local market and benefit from the Lebanese cadres among universities and students to secure employment opportunities for individuals and Lebanese partnerships.”


The President of Society of Petroleum Engineers , Beirut Section and Board Member of the Lebanese Petroleum Administration Dr. Nasser Hoteit highlighted “the importance of Arab cooperation for oil investment in Lebanon and the role of each of the leading companies in this sector in the Arab world, especially Aramco, ADNOC and others."

He believed that “it is time Lebanon joined the Arab element in the field of oil,” and hoped for “future cooperation in all fields relevant to exploration, production, and export.”

President of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and Manager of Saudi Aramco’s Petroleum Engineers Services Department Dr. Sami Al Nuaim pointed out that “the oil and gas sector will absorb the increasing demand on energy resulting from population growth and new technological progress.”


“It is necessary to reform the term sustainability as improving human life is our main objective and this reform will be based on three main factors: economic growth, social development and environmental monitoring,” he continued, "oil and gas will continue to be a key part of the future global energy mix with the growing environmental challenge that calls for greater cooperation, stronger participation and the urgent need to develop cleaner and more efficient use of oil and gas.”

Quality of Life in the Built Environment


The main aim of this subtheme is to let students provided with the competence to develop strategies for complex situations while planning a sustainable built environment and to understand the relation between the built environment and human behavior on the urban planning (the built and inbuilt environment). The faculty envisions that the staff members and the students can conduct researches in this theme through the capability of the library and its valuable references. This theme can cover the fields of (concepts, theories, and methods used by urban, understanding and management of systemic interdependencies of sustainability, systems engineering, systems modeling, urban planning, long-term urban development strategies, integrative design and modeling for sustainability, research oriented teaching).


Sustainable urban is a stimulator of system analysis and partial simulation for urban structures in urban development. Creating a holistic approach of scenarios that brings many solutions for several problems. This emphasizes the systems associated with infrastructures: solid waste, sewerage, wastewater, drinking water supply, transportation, energy and communications. Focusing on the three concepts: sustainability, lifecycle, and implications of integration across urban infrastructure, through the technical and analytical simulations. Problems that affect the urban structures are the determinants, which are caused by these concepts: social, economic, physical, cultural factors of the built and inbuilt environment. Healthy cities aim to improve the living conditions and services in association with various urban development activities. Bring together the public, private and voluntary sectors. Enabling nations to mutually support each other in developing the performance of life.


The world contains many of the environmental decomposition which creates many families living in uninhabitable slums. This is caused by the unhealthy cities and urban context that are living in. The concept of co-production has introduced in the cities for the public services’ development and sustainability. It included solutions to a criticism that conducted in communities often fails in its design. Co-production aims to put principles of empowerment into practicing in communities. It is the relation between the service users and the community, through time, energy, cost, and knowledge.


City leaders must move quickly to plan for growth. The acceleration of the urban scale creates several families with different genders and ages. This should be assured by safe growth of all family members that are contained in the city. Truly developments were established in the low and the middle income countries, through the sustainable and green cities spread all over the city.


The ecological process triggers several solutions for the urban design planning. Designers have some lacks in the urban ecosystem; however, they do all of their best to keep the entire engulfed system in the city protected and safe. They have to take into consideration many other factors that affect the environmental issues: social, economic, context… making a truly use of the wastes of the materials used.

Energy and Environment


The Faculty of Engineering conducts research that has relevance to Energy and Environment with a mission to support planning of environment-friendly energy systems in Lebanon and the Middle East region. For example, some research is concerned with the development of construction/structural materials that have lower carbon footprint (e.g. incorporating waste materials in construction). Other areas of research include new ways to reduce contamination and the treatment of contaminated soil/water. This can have a positive impact on the quality of air, water and soil that would be beneficial to health and wellbeing. Other research areas investigate different techniques to reduce carbon emissions originating from the operation of current wireless communication networks. This would have a direct impact on the reduction of greenhouse gases and thus contribute to the preservation of the environment. A main driver for this approach is the reduction of energy consumption through advanced energy management techniques. This would lead to the decrease in the use of non-renewable energy resources in favor of renewable resources such as solar and wind based.


Several research topics currently being tackled by researchers in the faculty of engineering fall under this theme. Examples of these topics are listed here below:

  • Green wireless communications design,

  • Green PV panels,

  • Innovative construction material with low embodied energy,

  • Reducing CO2 emission due to cement production,

  • Extracting the dust coming from quarries and using it in the production of cement. This will reduce the air pollution and its direct effect on human health (e.g Asthma),

  • Reducing traffic congestion which would reduce the travel time and the associated CO2 emission,

  • Treatment of groundwater and reinjection in the aquifer which would reduce water pollution,

  • Strengthening of existing structures. This will eliminate the demolition of existing structures and the associated dust emission and noise, and

  • Wastewater and ground treatment of Litani basin.


Researchers in the Faculty of Engineering show their interest in these topics by conducting research and reporting the outcomes in prestigious international and national journals, magazines, symposia, conferences and meetings. More than 7 publications were reported during the last two years.


The Faculty has plans concerning this research point precisely because it is of extreme importance to Lebanon. For instance, electricity provision must have regard to minimizing environmental and public health effects, both directly from generation and indirectly from obtaining fuels and dealing with wastes. This issue and many others to be cited below are the faculty’s main concern as reflected in its short and long-term strategies.