“Workforce diversity”, was considered as a coin surfaced in the 1990s (Quinetta, 2019). There has been a growing urge to understand workforce diversity better, in a more profound manner than what is observed at the surface level (Jain and Verma, 1996). Allowing managers to understand the main obstacles facing diversifies workgroups. In the 1990s, emerge of globalization enforced a novel trend for working team diversity. Workgroups in this research are production-oriented, which is linked to the manufacturing or to the service industry.
Diversity is all about differences and nuances. Even though many organizations are now providing what is known as “diversity training” for employees, however, it is mainly not a skill that employees get training on. (DuPont, 1999), diversity basically stands for "differences". In this research particularly, it means "differences within employees." The way an organization uses diversity defines whether it is an asset or a liability. Diversity can be accurately defined as a worldwide singularity that can be used with a set of differences, similarities or challenges amidst any collective mixture (Anita and Swamy, 2018).
In addition, diversity is considered a group’s attribute. It habitually it is concerned with demographic differences among the members of a group (McGrath, Berdahl, and Arrow, 1995). It should be noted that diversity within a workgroup is not only tied to perceived characteristics, since it also encompass invisible attributes such as various educational background, experience, learning style, creativity, and problem-solving aptitude (Nafukho et al., 2011). This research considers four main types of diversity, which widely used in the literature to examine the universal concept of diversity in different context, as follow:
When discussing gender diversity in terms of a work environment, it means that employees from both sexes are hired at alike, receiving equal rewards for the same work, in addition to equal work promotion opportunities.
Recently, both women and men work alongside in different careers. Mainly, there are no jobs that are more "female" or others that are more related to "male" roles. Accordingly, both are requested on a daily basis to interact with each other in a fair and equal way. This causes unrest and discomfort for some individuals, which lead to conflict within a certain workgroup. In Lebanon, women are perceived as non-aggressive, non-competitive, passive, and dependent; and are raised upon such values. They learn to sacrifice for the sake of relationships.
While Males might learn how to play an early life role; they are predictable to be controlling, independent, and competitive. Individuals often expect others to react and respond in the same manner, considering different behavior as wrong behavior (Kauser and Tlaiss, 2011). Gender communication raises an opportunity for rectifying wrong ideas.
Also, effective communication among a diverse workforce requires neglecting gender differences and offering equal opportunities for different individuals (DuPont, 1999).
An employee is adjusted by his legal status, his family state, and his commitment towards his family responsibilities (Deshpande, 2013). Marital status is thought as to whether or not the worker is married, unmarried, widowed, single, live-in relation, separated or unmarried. This has a bearing on the worker’s work-life balance and social satisfactoriness within the geographic point and his performance. During this analysis, in this research, the classes of marital status are married, separated, and single.
The educational qualifications mean certification the employees have acquired from his school, institute, college, and university, not only does the education qualify the employee to acquire jobs and positions in the hierarchy in the organization, but also it emphasizes the competency required by them to perform assigned job responsibilities (Deshpande, 2013). Workgroups have become the main structural units of most existing firms (Valls, et al., 2016).
The idea that group members have varied perspectives, ideas, proficiencies, level of education, and information, supports this trend. When an organization faces problems, it is diverse workgroups that are better prepared and equipped to deal with these complex problems (West, 2001). Members of work teams in certain business sectors have been taught common key contents. Members with various educational levels are required due to distinct, complicated teams' jobs. Academic skills can be acquired by people according to availability, capability, and experience. .
Moreover, educational background impacts the employee’s perception of workforce diversity. Hence the educational background of the employee is a secondary dimension, depending upon the type of education acquired and skill acquired can make the person capable of doing the designated jobs (Deshpande, 2013).
Work experience is the extent of experience in a certain job (McDaniel et al., 1988). It’s argued that relative individual differences in work experience and not complete ones yield individual differences in work knowledge, and work performance. Meanwhile, Avolio and colleagues (1990) pointed out that work experience can be considered as performance foreteller than age differences. Experience gives maturity to the employees and makes them aware of the work processes and the organizational expectations (Deshpande, 2013).
Skilled workers are commonly viewed as reliable, faithful, and devoted. They are also seen as entities that have a robust work ethic and performance record. This is owing to long work experience in related fields.
Performance in the firms' environment, can be defined as the scope in which member of an organization participates reaching organizational goals. Hence, employees are considered as the main source for enhancing service-oriented firms' performance (luthans and stajkovic, 1999; Pfeffer, 2005).
Tasks in organizations are performed with the aid of resources such as employees, machines, money, and materials. Unlike other resources, employee as a living and a generating resource have particular objectives to attain. Through using the resources, such objectives can be attained. Out of all these resources that are essential, employees are considered as the most important. This is because they play a major role in performing tasks with the aim of accomplishing the goals (Kumudha and Jennet, 2018).
Performance is a specific term that refers to the behaviors which an individual displays while concepts, similar to effectiveness and output mirror the results of those behaviors, which can be under employees` control or not (Campbell et al., 1990). In addition, Altındağa and Kösedağıa (2015) argued that performance as an effective effort performed for reaching a goal or a success to fulfill the job and execute it with achievement. As such performance is split into two parts; the first part is quantitative, and the second is a qualitative expression, where the business, group, or employees doing the job are trying to reach the goals related to this work.
Individual task performance is basically composed of factors engaged with role-prescribed behavior along with formal job responsibilities, and these factors include skills, motivation, knowledge, abilities and others. (Ang et al., 2007), Moreover, Borman and Motowidlo (1993) illustrated that task performance can be defined as an “employee’s proficiency with which he or she undertakes activities that contribute or adds value to the organizational technical core”.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB):
Organizational citizenship behavior is made up of employee behaviors that are not only limited to the call of duty (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2008). Examples to such are “gestures as constructive statements about the department or organization, expression of personal interest in the work of others, suggestions for progress, care for organizational property, training new employees.” Remarks have shown that organizational citizenship behavior positively correlates the rates of performance (Moestaina and Kadir, 2020, pp. 1214)
Eventually, any manager is instantly concerned to promote organizational citizenship behavior inside his own organization, owing to the impact it has on the organization’s performance (Podsakoff et al, 2009).
The creation and generation of original and valuable ideas associated with organizational products, services, and procedures is known to be creative performance (Amabile, 1988; Oldham and Cummings, 1996). To realize creative performance, one must take risks because the results for modern may deviate from the expected desired outcome (Zhou and George, 2001). “Creativity is defined as something that is novel-original and useful-adaptive” (Feist, 1998). Creativity has been examined by scholars in various fields through different methods, which tries to illustrate its measurements. Some studies focused on individual differences as a source for employee creativity, such as inherent motivation (Amabile, 1988).