Does your university as a body have a policy of non-discrimination for transgender people?

Article Two: University Values

The University’s basic values are academic distinction, honesty and integrity in teaching and scientific research, autonomy, freedom in conducting research, respect for individuality and safety, social justice, equality amongst individuals, scientific integrity, good conduct, setting good role-models, and honourable representation of the University.

It is the responsibility of the persons active within the context of the University to uphold these values through:

  • Committing to integrity of behaviour which is translatable into professional excellence and ethical behaviour.

  • Adhering to responsible and decisive attitudes in their actions.

  • Adhering to the practice of tolerance in their human relations.

  • Openness towards new ideas that intrinsically bear elevated objectives.

  • Enhancing benevolent and parental relations between staff members and the students.

Article Seven: Tolerance and Acceptance of the Other

Academic staff, researchers, non-academic staff and students should show tolerance and acceptance of the Other.

Article Nine: Academic Freedom

Academic freedom is an inherent right of the Academic staff as well as students. They have an obligation to preserve it and ensure its continuity. This freedom is practiced through teaching as well as research and creative activities, and within the boundaries publically acceptable moral values and in accordance with the University standards in particular.

Article Eighteen: Excellence & Good Treatment

Beirut Arab University is an establishment that is committed to achieving excellence and securing an environment which supports this objective. Likewise, it is committed to the treatment of every individual in the community with respect and integrity.

Article Nineteen: Equality

The University is keen on realizing the principle of equality and the repulsion of extremism and discrimination among members of the human community, and offering them equal opportunities regardless of colour, race, religion, origin, family status, gender, age, physical disability, social status, or social class. - The University has the right to take any and all legal procedures that its lists of rules and regulations enable it to take towards the person(s) that may be in violation of the principle of equality.

I.Non-discrimination and economic rights of non-nationals(art. 2)

  • Lebanon acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on 21 April 1997, with a reservation concerning article 9, paragraph 2, thereof under which women should be granted equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children. This remains a controversial issue on which governmental authorities and civil society organizations have failed to reach agreement, although some progress has been made in regard to the residence facilities offered to foreign spouses of Lebanese women and their children (for further details, reference can be made to section II of this report).

  • Lebanon also made a reservation to article 16, paragraph 1, of the Convention, under which States Parties are required to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations, in view of Lebanon’s personal status laws concerning confessional communities (for further details, reference can be made to section II of this report).

  • Lebanon made a further reservation to article 29, paragraph 1, which specifies procedures for the settlement of disputes between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention.

  • On 5 October 2005, Lebanon acceded to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, which was adopted by the United Nations on 15 November 2000, and also to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.

  • Lebanon also acceded to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment on 5 October 2000 and to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on 8 November 2004. It signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Optional Protocol thereto on 4 June 2007 and, on 6 February 2007, signed the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.

  • Within the framework of the International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions concerning human rights, Lebanon acceded to the Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) on 10 March 2003. On 11 September 2001, it also acceded to the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), and adopted the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation, 1999 (No. 190).

  • The Lebanese authorities are continuing the policy that they have adopted in regard to foreign workers, which is based on non-discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, nationality, religion, political opinion or national or social origin. Lebanese laws apply to Lebanese nationals and foreigners alike, with equal rights except in regard to the right to acquire ownership of property, which is limited in the case of foreigners, and some occupations the exercise of which is restricted to Lebanese nationals. Although foreigners are employed in the private sector, their employment in the public sector is extremely limited due to the availability of the requisite Lebanese human resources and the fact that Lebanese applicants for posts in the public sector are required to pass special examinations which foreign applicants are not eligible to sit.


II. Equal right to the enjoyment of fundamental human rights (arts. 3, 4 and 5)

  • The principal measures that the Lebanese authorities have taken to achieve the purposes of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and particularly the right of self-determination and the right to equality, during the period covered by this report include the promulgation of a number of enactments, including:

    • Act No. 686 of 16 March 1998, concerning compulsory and free primary education.

    • Act No. 220 of 29 May 2000, concerning the rights of persons with disabilities.

    • Act No. 422 of 6 June 2002, concerning juveniles in conflict with the law or at risk.

    • Act No. 164 of 24 August 2011, concerning the punishment of human trafficking offences; · Act No. 216 of 30 March 2012, defining each year of a custodial sentence as a term of 9 months’ imprisonment.

    • Act No. 293 of 7 May 2014, concerning the protection of women and other household members against domestic violence.


  • Lebanese society is characterized by its religious diversity insofar as its various regions are inhabited by 18 officially recognized confessional communities the political, social and cultural rights of which are diligently protected by the State. Recent years have witnessed numerous developments in regard to the right of self-determination and the right to equality. By way of example, civil society associations have endeavoured to secure the exemption of Lebanese nationals from the provisions of the personal status laws regulating the confessional communities to which they belong and a number of citizens have submitted applications for deletion of the names of their communities from their personal identity documents. On 21 October 2008, the Minister of Interior and Municipalities decided that these applications should be accepted and, on 6 February 2009, he issued a further decision affirming that the human rights to which every citizen was entitled included the right to demand that his or her confessional affiliation be omitted or deleted from civil registry records.

“Workforce diversity”, was considered as a coin surfaced in the 1990s (Quinetta, 2019). There has been a growing urge to understand workforce diversity better, in a more profound manner than what is observed at the surface level (Jain and Verma, 1996). Allowing managers to understand the main obstacles facing diversifies workgroups. In the 1990s, emerge of globalization enforced a novel trend for working team diversity. Workgroups in this research are production-oriented, which is linked to the manufacturing or to the service industry. Diversity is all about differences and nuances. Even though many organizations are now providing what is known as “diversity training” for employees, however, it is mainly not a skill that employees get training on. (DuPont, 1999), diversity basically stands for "differences". In this research particularly, it means "differences within employees." The way an organization uses diversity defines whether it is an asset or a liability. Diversity can be accurately defined as a worldwide singularity that can be used with a set of differences, similarities or challenges amidst any collective mixture (Anita and Swamy, 2018). In addition, diversity is considered a group’s attribute. It habitually it is concerned with demographic differences among the members of a group (McGrath, Berdahl, and Arrow, 1995). It should be noted that diversity within a workgroup is not only tied to perceived characteristics, since it also encompass invisible attributes such as various educational background, experience, learning style, creativity, and problem-solving aptitude (Nafukho et al., 2011). This research considers four main types of diversity, which widely used in the literature to examine the universal concept of diversity in different context, as follow:


  • Gender Diversity:

When discussing gender diversity in terms of a work environment, it means that employees from both sexes are hired at alike, receiving equal rewards for the same work, in addition to equal work promotion opportunities. Recently, both women and men work alongside in different careers. Mainly, there are no jobs that are more "female" or others that are more related to "male" roles. Accordingly, both are requested on a daily basis to interact with each other in a fair and equal way. This causes unrest and discomfort for some individuals, which lead to conflict within a certain workgroup. In Lebanon, women are perceived as non-aggressive, non-competitive, passive, and dependent; and are raised upon such values. They learn to sacrifice for the sake of relationships. While Males might learn how to play an early life role; they are predictable to be controlling, independent, and competitive. Individuals often expect others to react and respond in the same manner, considering different behavior as wrong behavior (Kauser and Tlaiss, 2011). Gender communication raises an opportunity for rectifying wrong ideas. Also, effective communication among a diverse workforce requires neglecting gender differences and offering equal opportunities for different individuals (DuPont, 1999).


  • Marital Status Diversity:

An employee is adjusted by his legal status, his family state, and his commitment towards his family responsibilities (Deshpande, 2013). Marital status is thought as to whether or not the worker is married, unmarried, widowed, single, live-in relation, separated or unmarried. This has a bearing on the worker’s work-life balance and social satisfactoriness within the geographic point and his performance. During this analysis, in this research, the classes of marital status are married, separated, and single.


  • Educational Diversity:

The educational qualifications mean certification the employees have acquired from his school, institute, college, and university, not only does the education qualify the employee to acquire jobs and positions in the hierarchy in the organization, but also it emphasizes the competency required by them to perform assigned job responsibilities (Deshpande, 2013). Workgroups have become the main structural units of most existing firms (Valls, et al., 2016). The idea that group members have varied perspectives, ideas, proficiencies, level of education, and information, supports this trend. When an organization faces problems, it is diverse workgroups that are better prepared and equipped to deal with these complex problems (West, 2001). Members of work teams in certain business sectors have been taught common key contents. Members with various educational levels are required due to distinct, complicated teams' jobs. Academic skills can be acquired by people according to availability, capability, and experience. Moreover, educational background impacts the employee’s perception of workforce diversity. Hence the educational background of the employee is a secondary dimension, depending upon the type of education acquired and skill acquired can make the person capable of doing the designated jobs (Deshpande, 2013).


  • Work Experience Diversity:

Work experience is the extent of experience in a certain job (McDaniel et al., 1988). It’s argued that relative individual differences in work experience and not complete ones yield individual differences in work knowledge, and work performance. Meanwhile, Avolio and colleagues (1990) pointed out that work experience can be considered as performance foreteller than age differences. Experience gives maturity to the employees and makes them aware of the work processes and the organizational expectations (Deshpande, 2013). Skilled workers are commonly viewed as reliable, faithful, and devoted. They are also seen as entities that have a robust work ethic and performance record. This is owing to long work experience in related fields.


The standing Committees SCORA and SCORE  in LeMSIC in the Faculty of Medicine at Beirut Arab University organized an awareness event entitled "Gender Based Violence".

Students from the Faculty of Medicine emphasized and brought up this important topic through several games and several mind blowing statistics and numbers. They also did several scenarios in front of the students to try to help them imagine more how it is like to be in the place of any abused person and what to do in any case.